What is Cryptography? Here are the History, Types, and Functions
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What is Cryptography? Here are the History, Types, and Functions

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What is Cryptography? Here are the History, Types, and Functions

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Data security is essential in the digital world, especially in blockchain and crypto. Therefore, it is critical to know cryptography.

In addition, it is also essential to understand how it is implemented in cyber security. Well, to find out more about this one tool, let’s look at the following review.

What is Cryptography?

Cryptography is a word in Greek, namely Kryptos and graphein, which means “secret or hidden” (Kryptos) and writing (graphein).

Therefore, the understanding of cryptography, in general, is the process of writing or conveying messages in a secret and hidden way.

However, cryptography is defined as a discipline when associated with digital technology. Studies the encryption technique of the original (plaintext), which is arranged randomly by using an encryption key so that the script turns into text that is not easy to read (ciphertext) by the user who does not have the decryption key.

It should also be noted there is a classic cryptography term, a cryptography technique with a manufacturer that does not require computer assistance. Usually, this technique will use tools like pens, stones, paper, and various traditional tools of the like.


Pulling back into the past, this cryptography in history was quite popular in the heyday of the Greeks around 400 BC.

At that time, the tool used to create hidden messages in the era of Greek civilization was called “scytale.” The shape is the form of a cylindrical bar consisting of a combination of 18 letters.

Over time, during the reign of Julius Caesar (Roman Empire), cryptography was applied more and more with consideration of the country’s stability.

Thus, referring to the above aspects, both classical and modern, this cryptography has the same goal, namely, as a security system.

Types of Cryptography

Based on its use, cryptography can be divided into the following types.

  • Hash Function

The first type of cryptography is a hash function. Its use, namely to summarize the data and send an explanation that has been translated.

This one cryptography uses mathematical equations. In this case, the algorithm will take a numeric value as input which the hash system will then summarize.

You don’t need a key for this method because the function has been adapted to the stages of a one-way or direct-based data transmission scenario.

  • Public Key Cryptography

It has been a revolutionary data protection concept for 300 to 400 years. This term is often called the “public key” or public key.

The public key utilizes two corresponding keys, namely the public and private keys. Public key cryptography is considered more secure than symmetric keys.

In this type, the method that is often used is RSA. Meanwhile, examples of other ways include DSA, CCP, and the elliptic curve technique.

  • Symmetric Key Cryptography

Also known as a “secret key,” this type allows the recipient and sender of information only to use one key to encrypt data.

This type is operated using the Advanced Encryption System or AES. The approach taken by cryptography is considered more efficient than other methods.


  • Hide important data

The primary function of cryptography is to protect/maintain the confidentiality of important data from people who have no excellent/interest in knowing.

This one function is run with a cryptographic algorithm that hides data with a key system, encryption, and decryption.

  • Perform encryption and decryption

Cryptography is carried out with an encryption and decryption system to maintain data security. Encryption is the process of hiding data by converting plaintext into ciphertext. In contrast, decryption is the opposite of encryption, which is understanding data from ciphertext to plaintext so humans can understand it.

  • Improve data privacy and security

Of course, devices and applications already equipped with a cryptography system will increase the privacy and security of users’ data because these tools respect the aspects of information security, including confidentiality, authentication, integrity, and non-denial. -repudiation).

Getting to Know Modern Cryptography

Below are some pointers for cryptographic needs that cryptographers can do.

  • Authentication

It is a process where the sender and receiver know the identity of each data source (data source).

  • Confidentiality

This protected information feature makes when the party or user accesses the system cannot be processed/constrained in access rights (authority).

  • Integrity

This feature makes the sending and receiving parties unable to change data without the knowledge of both parties concerned.

  • Non-Repudiation

This is a situation when the sender and receiver cannot deny/prevent their purpose from changing/creating information.

Techniques and Algorithms

For information, the technique used in cryptography is the scrambling method, which converts plain text into ciphertext. This technique is known as encryption and decryption.

In the cryptography algorithm, there are three essential functions, namely key, encryption, and decryption. Encryption is hiding message data by converting plaintext into ciphertext.

Meanwhile, decryption is the opposite of encryption, which aims to understand the message so the user can appropriately read it. On the other hand, the key meaning here is the technique used to encrypt and decrypt data.

Other recent reviews about the world of digital assets only at Indodax Academy.

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