ASIC, or Application-Specific Integrated Circuit, is a semiconductor chip explicitly made for a specific application or purpose.
ASIC can increase speed because it is specifically designed to do one thing well, particularly with efficient performance, in contrast to a CPU or Central Processing Unit, designed to perform various types of tasks.
Therefore, ASIC has the advantage of being able to work quickly and efficiently for a particular task because it is designed for that task, but this makes ASIC have a major weakness, namely limited functionality.
In the crypto context, ASIC is often used for mining certain cryptocurrencies, such as Bitcoin.
ASIC miners are specially designed to perform mining tasks with high efficiency, enabling miners to obtain higher speed and performance than using other common hardware such as CPU or GPU.